Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID) – Session 2

Notes from the World Bank workshop on “Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID)” in Washington.

In this session, the audience consists of World Bank members – contrary to LDCs in the former session.

For further and reading about planned future events of the eDevelopment group of World Bank I may suggest eDevelopment blog edited by Oleg Petrov.

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Opening Remarks:

Ernesto May, Sector Director, SASPF

To make ICTs for government transformation work, the public services specialists in the World Bank have to work with the ICT specialists – we have to take an integrated approach

It’s great that all these countries share their experiences with each other

We are very fortunate to hear from the practitioners & experts

eID is a critical component of a e-government initiative – so I hope these sessions provide us with experince which we can apply later

Laurent Besancon, Senior ICT Policy Specialist, Global ICT Department, World
Bank

Connecting government practitioners with each others – some planning this process, some who have already undergone it – to provide them with tools

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Panel Discussion: Lessons from International Experience

Overview of international experience and key lessons learned: Bill Nagel, Analyst, Forrester Research

Pakistan Case Study: Ali Arshad Hakeem, Chairman, NADRA, Keynote Presentation

Same presentations as in Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID) – Session 1 – Opening session & Panel discussion 1

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Commentary: Ed Campos, Advisor, Governance, World Bank Institute

Last years: rapid development in ICT

Philippines:

  • problem with textbooks – were distributed in the beginning of the year, but only 20% reached the pupils
  • scheme of the ministry: involved cell phone – they partnered with the boy scouts, gave them cellphones, sent them a list of textbooks and required the recipients to verify the list vs. the textbooks which came there
  • that solved the problem

ICT is not the solution for everything – it’s strategic instrument

One of the biggest problems in Bangladesh – informal money exchange, not traceable

  • introducing ways to transfer in another way made the money transfer visible

Problems emerged in the last two years

  • there were two million ghost voters in the list
  • with an eID system you could tackle this problem – but still difficult

ICTs have to be used in a very strategic way – but can be very simple

Q & A

Q: How to manage confidentiality & identity fraud? What is the cost per client per card?

Q: How was the political will to start the eID organization in Pakistan?

Martin Schmitt: Contracting IT services – is there a best case scenario?

Q: 90% of the Pakistani population have mobile phones – what about moving to SIM cards concerning eIDs?

Q: How is this maintained, what is your business model? How successful are you in getting funding in the commercial sector?

Mr. Hakeem

  • Cost? Lately we do commercial pricing – e.g. 1100 rupees
  • Fraud? It’s a major problem – with 70 Mio people in the database; some parents “created” children they never had to sell their identity later
  • We need to have a critical mass having an eID, then everything will work
  • Mobile phones? We don’t have 70 Mio mobile phones, we sold 70 Mio SIMs – we considered it but it takes a little longer to develop – also a lot of people require a copy of the card, it’s the culture; eventually in 5-6 years mobile phones will emerge
  • What about the business model? All employees know how to use a computer; we are heavily state funded, but next year we will have a profit of 100 Mio$ – the business possibilities are huge
  • What is the deal which prevents you from doing “nasty” things? There is no contract – it’s a government body which has been given a function; we can contract everything out – except our core competency of identifying the citizens

Mr. Nagel

  • PKI infrastructure being expensive? Still expensive, there exist cheaper optione but they are not as secure

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Belgium Case study: Frank Leyman, Manager International Relations, FEDICT, Belgium

Estonia Case Study: Arvo Ott, Chairman, e-Governance Academy, Estonia and Tarvi Martens, Development Director, SK – Estonian ID Agency

Same presentations as in Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID) – Session 1 – Panel discussion 2 & Closing panel

Nick Manning

eIDs are an opportunity for easier access to public services for many citizens

the demand for development in this area is very high currently – and much of the work is not glamurous

  • maintaining a database
  • get applications up and running
  • advertising

lessons are everywhere – in every country there’s lessons to learn, whatever developed, whatever big or small

it’s substantial not to reinvent the wheel

lessons for the bank

  • we are a knowledge broker
  • we should share knowledge
  • we shoud bring together practitioners
  • we shoud take a look how to carry out our projects according to the lessons learned today

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Q & A

Q: What’s your sense that going mobile would be one way where eID could be used in developing countries to include them?

Q: Belgian system relies on people having computers – how about countries where people have no computers? Where is the data saved?

Q: Can you think of using the eID card for

Mr. Leyman

  • eID in mobile environment? you should see eID also as an identification credential, not only as a smart card
  • Relying on computers? in Belgium the eID is still mostly used in a convential way – putting it out of the pocket and show it to a policeman; in LDCs they could use kiosks – touchscreens with pictograms;
  • Where is the data? everything is done online – all the data is in the database in the ministries – but there are many countries where all the information is stored on the card
  • Prices of readers? When we launched eID – 30€; then we went to the industry to ask them for how to put down the price -> the ministry bought 300 000 readers, the price went down 50%; we do a lot with the industry sector

Mr. Ott & Mr. Martens

  • PCs necessary? No, it’s possible to have access points
  • Where is the information? It’s in a database – and everybody should know how other people are using their data
  • Mobile opportunities? It depends what you need – eIDs are not expensive, a lot of cost is about the issuance, the chip is very cheap – it’s more about getting people to the office; mobile has advantages, it’s easier to roll out; you have to be careful with that – issuance of the mobile phone is a crucial issue

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Closing Panel: “How to Move Forward on Mainstreaming Electronic Identification in Bank Operations?

Samia Melhem

We talked about many examples in many countries and learned a lot

Private-Public partnerships are essential

We can extend the model to more indegenous contexts

A lot of work is not glamurous, it requires process, propositions and leadership

For us at the World Bank we want to make sure to talk all together and offer the country a good solution

the e-government, e-procurement, … is all based on demand, there’s a hunger for this topic

Oleg Petrov

Thanks to our partners

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Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID) – Session 2
was published on 07.05.2009 by Florian Sturm. It files under global
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Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID) – Session 1 – Panel discussion 2 & Closing panel

Notes from the World Bank workshop on “Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID)” in Washington.

.

Estonia Case Study: Arvo Ott, Chairman, e-Governance Academy, Estonia and Tarvi Martens, Development Director, SK – Estonian ID Agency

People in Estonia are using a lot of technology – they are very savvy

Everyone has an ID card, it’s compulsory for citizens

Certification is done in the private sector – values are stored in a central database

  • It’s used for public transportation
  • authentication to log in e-citizen portal
  • secure email – for C2C, B2C, G2C
  • internet voting

public sector is obliged to accept eIDs

PKI – public key infrastructure – infrastructure has to be created first

Cards were issued – but users were not there

Reasons:

  • Habits
  • Barriers – software
  • Promotion – people didn’t know about it

Average EU citizen

  • uses government e-services 1 time a year
  • uses e-banking 1 time a week
  • how to increase the first number?

Measures

  • Availability
  • Wide support and usability
  • Reader distribution
  • SW installation made easy -  multi-platform upgrade on the way

Alternative – MobileID

  • PKI capable SIM cards
  • Instantly ready to use
  • But still in early stage

Number of users did increase

Policy aspects

  • is the government responsible for building the PKI?
  • simple plastic cards vs. smart cards
  • many eIDs or just one?
  • politicians expect fast results

Lessons learned

  • Infrastructure for all – public, private sector …
  • Simple tools for eID
  • technology neutral tools are important
  • data protection is in most cases on the side of the end user
  • there are a lot of critics

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Belgium Case study: Frank Leyman, Manager International Relations, FEDICT, Belgium

Belgium situation is complicated – different regions have different desires

National decision – reorganize public services

  • Interconnected databases of different ministries, on top of that a secure layer
  • Window to the outside world:national portal website
  • Smart card that “opens the door” – get access to certain services
  • The key is used to get access to an application

Future: integrated e.g. social security card with eID card

layered model, open, not dependent on private suppliers, authentic host;

Never outsource your core product

Three different IDs for under 12, oder 12, foreign residents

Security measures for children cards

eID is available to anybody wanting to identify people / companies

eID offers possibility to retain localized information

even ministers sign their laws and decrees from home with their eID

tools developed with & for the eID card

  • citizen portal
  • website about all kinds of questions around the ID
  • interactive map with appllications that use eID
  • quick install toolbox e.g. for a card reader
  • insight what personal data ministries keep & when and where it was checked
  • website for checking Belgian ID

International aspects

trying to connect to other countries

in Europe – connect authentication systems of all the countries

Failures

  • Underestimated communication & education
  • Number of card readers was to low
  • Price of internet & PCs is very high
  • Number of applications is small

10 action points

  • National political consensus
  • Create legal framework
  • Clean your authentic sources
  • Typcial layers – create good rules of the game
  • Tools so everybody can develop around it
  • Spend enough time that everyone finds out
  • Don’t forget the world outside

Q & A:

Afghanistan:Related to e-government, there are various case studies – but we want to know how to best start e-government and eID in a country such as Afghanistan, recovering from year-long war.

Bangladesh: Challenges – poor people can’t afford eID cards, high number of inhabitants, also many in rural areas. How can eID bring a benefit for poor people?

Grenada: Concern – political will. We have a World Bank project dealing with eID, educating the public. Politicians have more concerns creating jobs than giving people eID cards.

India: Has there been use of eID in the education and tourism sector? Is the national ID becoming a global ID? There is no standard in biometrics, there is no standard providing IDs, many agencies and none talk to another.

Mozambique: Who has the ownership of eID projects.

Russia: eID systems which are used by the states have often problems with interoperability? Do you use own, custom made technological solution; if not- how can you assure that everything works? What number of Smartcards for getting paid services? How sophisticated should the devices into which a simcard is put, be?

Uganda: How do you get power in remote areas to benefit from technology?

Tanzania: Who is really eligable to register as Tanzanian? Online vs. Offline system – what makes more sense for Tanzania? How to motivate a Tanzanian to register for an eID?

Twitter: Is the issue of PPPs being looked at for successful implementation?

Mr. Leyman

  • How to start e-government in a poor country? You need a fitting project; if eID fits there, good
  • Cost of eID? Municipalities: 8€ per card + 1€ per certificate;
  • Political will? You should not give in
  • Tourism & eduction? Enrolment to universities via internet, registration of hotels;
  • Biometric standards? Not yet present
  • Ownership? Different from country to country; Belgium: government level
  • HW/SW? Wrote application ourselves, but outsourced the programming
  • Tanzanian? How do I rebuild my national register – in Congo for election purposes all the people were photographed & fingerprints were taken & people were put in a database
  • Online vs. Offline? Take small steps, online is generally better

Mr. Hakeem

  • Infrastructure? Same problems in Pakistan – practical steps: create benefits for people to register for cards; politicians want to get their voters registered, social security is a motivation;

Mr. Ott & Mr. Martens

  • How to start e-government in a poor country? Make a clear picture who is motivated and who is responsible; partnership with private sector engagements
  • Online vs. Offline? If the infrastructure is not in the place – offline; although they are more risky and more expensive
  • PPPs? Was one of our main driving forces
  • Mobile solutions? Every mobile phone can be used, which has a simcard
  • Eduction? E-school – everything is electronic and a meeting place for pupils, teachers, parents
  • HW/SW? If something is out there which is good take it – no need to reinvent the wheel every time

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Closing Panel: “How to Move Forward on Mainstreaming Electronic Identification in Development Agenda”

Ernesto May – Sector Director, SASPF

Main conclusion – challenges not related to technology, but technology can be brought in to tackle these challenges

It’s vital for governments to more efficiently reach their citizens & provide their services

We need to be adressing issues in a tactical matter

Sharing experiences is important – and bring experiences to the local conditions

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Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID) – Session 1 – Panel discussion 2 & Closing panel
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Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID) – Session 1 – Opening session & Panel discussion 1

Notes from the World Bank workshop on “Service Delivery and Electronic Identification (eID)” in Washington.

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Introduction of the audience

Afghanistan – first time to connect them to an eDevelopment event: members from various ministries

Bangladesh – first time they created a database for eID, trying to learn how to make use of it

India

Mozambique – bank of Mozambique, ministry of interior

Russia – over 30 participants, discussion: problems connected with use of different technologies in eID, barriers & improvements of services, interoperability; representatives of key bodies to introduce eID systems are present

Uganda – representative of the ministry of ICT affairs from Belgium

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Opening Session

Samia Melhem:

This event is a partnership

Schedule: Opening statements, then two presentations, questions, total of 11 sites – questions from there will be mentioned;

Nick Manning, Sector Manager, Latin America / Caribbean Public Sector, World Bank

There are many attempts for eID systems worldwide;

Second agenda: governance – identification is the key tool

Joel Hellman, Sector Manager, South Asia Public Sector, World Bank

Fundamental factors about governance – governance is about power, power over somebody else

Improving technology can improve/rebalance the balance of power – ICTs can empower

There seems to be huge capacity/brain power – the challenge is to make the best use of ICTs and eID is particularly critical

Han Fraeters, Manager, Knowledge Exchange, World Bank Institute

This type of exchange is great – it’s not just about the technical aspects, it’s about an exchange between different countries how to reform

Let’s think about how to make transformation happen

It’s important to have practitioners to learn from each other – they learn on the job, not from textbooks

Laurent Besancon, Senior ICT Policy Specialist, Global ICT Department, World Bank

How to use ICTs to reform/transform governments, how can we support government practitioners/champions to transform governments

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Panel Discussion: Lessons from International Experience

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Overview of international experience and key lessons learned: Bill Nagel, Analyst, Forrester Research

Covers digital identity – responsible for Forrester digital security

eID – key element of security delivery

eID are about identity fraud & are used to deliver government & commercial needs to citizens

privacy vs. range of commercial options

Primary chosen ID – chip-card with public key infrastructure; also possible: mobile phones

eIDs are used for G2C service delivery – health care, voting, social security, tax, shool/work, child safety, public transport

Enhanced commercial services – B2C – eBanking, secure email, …

Development impact – improved impact of service delivery, more transparency – inhibiting corruption

Concerns:

  • too high focus on technology – that’s solved, introducing eID is more a process problem;
  • Success factors: ease & frequency of use
  • privacy concerns – government control over databases & private sector usage; solution by Austria – but harder, more costly, not scaling well
  • Interoperability – using ID in various countries

eID has mostly been in place – but there is almost a complete lack of commercial applications – better in Sweden

eID is important in LDCs

  • because it can allow people to access government services at all
  • mobile phones can help a lot
  • eIDs facilitate service delivery to all, even remote areas

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Pakistan Case Study: Ali Arshad Hakeem, Chairman, NADRA

Issued a 70 Mio ID card project just last month

Database for public services

>70 Mio cards issued, 10 000 employees, fingerprints stored, …

National data warehouse

Biggest challenge is the administrative process

NADRA was established in 1999 – young team, technological savvy

  • First step – creating a database for ID cards
  • Many ID cards
  • Working together with different departments
  • 95% of men & 64% of women covered

It is essential to think of data in a database structure

Challenges

  • Pakistans rural population is underserved by government services
  • Terrorism

Challenges to launch the smart cards

  • Cost
  • Total ~1 Billion
  • Smart identity card
  • Make savings on card possible
  • Offer life and health insurance for everybody
  • Banks & insurance companies should pay for the ID cards
  • Provide a link between every Pakistani & banks, insurance companies
  • Furthermore – ID cards for overseas Pakistanis, for 50$

Conclusion

  • Well established registration
  • Comprehensive database
  • Has to be commercially viable (banks, insurance companies)

Q & A:

Afghanistan: Use of ICT should be adopted in LDC – but countries like Afghanistan lack all the infrastucture. Is it possible to focus on technology in such an environment?

Bangladesh: What is the arrangement for citizens below 18?

Grenada: Concerning legal framework in place for prevention of misuse & discrimination – how are countries expected to provide such a framework? Is somebody providing money & a framework for LDCs?

India: What is the format to assure to have a unique ID? How is the security of the eID assured? What are the challenges of change management? What is the timeframe required for eID projects?

Mozambique: How is it possible to create a database of IDs? How to collect the information? How can you assure that an ID project is secure? Which ministry should have the ownership?

Russia: Tendency towards usage of mobile phones – what are particular examples? What legal acts & norms are needed to make eID legitimate?

Uganda: Cultural issues – how can you make a population appreciate an eID when having lived so long without it?

Mr. Hakeem:

  • Change management? there a huge interest in having fake identities; checks and balances have to be in place, NADRA legislation was put up, processes were defined
  • Do you share identities? ID cards are verified – they can’t be shared, are connected to one particular person
  • Legislation required? Two laws define the framework
  • Numbering scheme? numbering scheme involving districts, regions – resulting into a unique number

Bill Nagel:

  • Examples for mobile phones? it’s still in its first stages – Finland is exploring it, Turkey, Japan use some services for authentication; there is no complete rollout – but it’s just a matter of time
  • Getting population appreciate eIDs? it’s vital to give the population an additional benefit from using them
  • How is security maintained? 2 ways – data & chip itself; encryption, biometric fingerprint, PKI
  • Children under 18? depends on legal frameworks

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